Doctor who is passionate about acupuncture

I love what I do, I am good at it and I am always there for my patients. If you come and see me, you will know why I am standing out. .

Welcome to my blog

Leading acupuncture specialist for facial rejuvenation, pain relief, stress relief, fertility, fatigue, anxiety.
Based at Kensington, Chelsea, Harley Street Central London.Qualified as a medical doctor in Western medicine in China with a Medical degree from Beijing, China and a PhD degree from the UK. Many year research and clinical experiences

My profile

Acupuncture practice contact for appointments and addresses

Kensington: book online or call at 02030110355 or email at info@anamaya.co.uk
Address: Anamaya 1 Adam and Eve Mews, Kensington, London W8 6UG
2 min walk from High Street Kensington underground station

Chelsea: book online or call 02033623366

Address: Triyoga Chelsea 372 King's road, SW3 5UZ

20 min walk from Sloan Square tube station

Harley Street: for appointments at Harley Street (Fridays) please email at maggieacupuncture@gmail.com

Address: 4 Harley Street, London W1G 9PH

5 min walk from Oxford Circus underground station

My background: I became a qualified medical doctor in Western medicine in China and was well trained in Western medicine together with Chinese medicine in the best Medical University in Beijing, China. Particularly I was trained with Ji-sheng Han famous professor and neuroscientist in China and with Dr Zheren Xuan--famous orthopedics expert and founder of soft tissue surgery in China. Furthermore I had training in dermatology and oral and maxilofacial surgery in China. Also I had training in fertility and had research experiences in uterine smooth muscles and blood vessels in China and the UK. I am dedicated to treat patients with acupuncture and am recognised as one of the world leading acupuncture specialists.


I obtained a PhD degree in the University of Leeds in the UK.
I had post doctoral training and worked as a senior researcher in St George's hospital, London, UK.
I had frequently presented my research findings in the top international conferences in the field.
I have many publications including ebooks and articles.

I have many year clinical experiences. Over the years of practicing in London, I have developed unique effective treatment approaches for cosmetic acupuncture, acne, pain relief including vulvodynia, bladder pain, pelvic pain, chronic prostatitis, neck pain, headache, migraine, shoulder pain, back pain, stress relief, anxiety, fatigue, fertility, hot flushes, nerve pain, insomnia to achieve best treatment results.

My devotion and skills are highly praised by my patients.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKdoRpfr0ic

Guest blog articles and Reviews

Guest blog articles
https://anamayahealth.blogspot.com/2018/03/dr-maggie-ju-talks-about-vulvodynia.html

Reviews
M Ju. (2015) What Part Does Acupuncture Play in IVF?
The Journal of Chinese Medicine And Acupuncture Volume 22 Issue 1 March 2015 P21

Thursday, 16 July 2020

5 reasons why you should have yoga along with acupuncture to benefit most for the mind-body health.

Modern rapid lifestyle puts extreme strains on our mind and body. To keep our mind-body healthy we look back for those ancient healing arts and holistic approaches. Fortunately, we found some. Yoga, a practice dating back over 2000 years to ancient India focuses on the integration of the mind, body, and spirit through the practice of physical movements, meditation and breathing exercises. Its relaxation benefits (meditation and breathing exercises) and stretching and strengthening movements (physical poses) are attracted to many people in modern era. Acupuncture, an ancient healing art has also been practiced for more than 2000 years since it was originated from China. Acupuncture, in which thin needles are inserted into the body was considered a primary medical skill in ancient China and has gained popularity in Western countries in the last few decades.

There are 5 reasons to gain most benefits for our mind and body when we have yoga alongside with acupuncture.

1, Maximize brain and body communications from different pathways. The communication pathway between the brain and body is two-way traffic via motor system and sensory systems of nerves. The brain influences and controls the body via motor system, while the body sends signals to the brain via sensory system. Yoga is a movement therapy in which the benefit is through motor system by movement (physical poses and breathing); acupuncture instead is non-movement therapy in which the needle sensation is sent to the brain via sensory system. Yoga with add on acupuncture provides synergy effects of balance and harmony.

2, Integrate balance of the mind, the face, and the body. When we say the mind body connection, we forget the face. All our emotions, anxieties and stresses can be accumulated on the face which ages the face and affects the brain and mind. Yoga’s movements are mainly involved in the body movements; it does nothing to the face. Facial acupuncture can release all the emotions, anxieties, and stresses to rejuvenate the face and restore harmony in the mind and relax the body. Therefore, having yoga combined with facial acupuncture can benefit the most to integrate the balance of the mind, body, and face.

3, Unblock energy before it can be moved. In the modern practice of yoga, we use movement, breathing and meditation to move energy in a direction that nourishes us. However, if there is a blockage on the energy pathway, the energy cannot get through. So, it is easy to understand that we use acupuncture to sort out any blockages to clear up energy pathway. In this way we can benefit the most from yoga to move the energy around. For example, if there is pain and inflammation on any part of the body where the energy is blocked, this part of the body cannot move because the body automatically protect itself from moving and causing pain. Acupuncture can release pain and inflammation to remove the blockage and make the energy move freely. Then we can do yoga without pain.

4, Acupuncture reduces anxiety and stress to help yoga breathing. Breathing is the core technique of yoga practice which should be rhythmic, deep, and slow to create harmony and balance within the body and mind. If we are anxious and stressed, our breathing patterns tend to be irregular which is tense, shallow, and erratic. Acupuncture releases anxiety and stress effectively to help restore regular breathing patterns and relaxation state to benefit yoga practice.

5, Acupuncture releases tension to help yoga stretching and strengthening. During yoga, our body is going through a full range and variety of motion to get best poses by stretching and strengthening techniques. If some muscles are in tense, stretching and strengthening these muscles can cause injury or simply they are not relaxing and cannot be stretched, let alone strengthening. Acupuncture can release tension from the muscles to make sure all muscles are ready for yoga practice.


Tuesday, 14 July 2020

Chinese herbal medicine stories: Fu Ling

Fu Ling (Wolfiporia cocos, Poria Mushrooms)

Fu Ling (Wolfiporia cocos, Poria Mushrooms) is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees.

This is the first story about Fu Ling. Once upon a time, a councillor had a daughter named Ling. He had a strong lad named Fu to help look after the household. Fu was hard working guy, the councillor’s daughter loved him secretly. When the councillor knew this, he was extremely unhappy. He said that they were not in the same class and could not get married. He fired Fu and grounded his own daughter and made her engaged to a guy from a rich family. Fu and Ling heard this and they both ran away from the family and lived in a small village. Later, Ling had rheumatism and could not get out of the bed. Fu was looking after her day after day. One day Fu went to the mountain to pick up herbs for Ling. Suddenly there was a hare in front of him. His arrow hit a hind leg of the hare. The injured hare ran and Fu chased it closely. When they reached felled pine forest, the hare disappeared. Fu looked for the hare, but he could not find it. Instead he found his arrow inserted into a black ball shaped mushroom. He pulled out his arrow from it and found that something white came out from hole of the black ball mushroom skin. He picked up whole mushroom and cooked for Ling to eat. Next day Ling felt better. Fu was so happy and picked up lots of this mushroom for Ling to eat. Gradually Ling’s rheumatism was getting better and she was completely recovered. Fu and Ling was the first to find this and they were name Fu Ling.

Another story about Fu Ling. Genghis Khan leaded his army to fight in the war in central plain in China. It was raining for a few months. Most of the soldiers suffered from rheumatism. They faced to be defeated and extremely worried. By accidents, a few soldiers had Fu Ling and their rheumatism was healed. Having heard this Genghis Khan was incredibly happy and get some people went to Luo Tian town where Fu Ling were produced to buy Fu Ling. All soldiers and officers ate Fu Ling and recovered from rheumatism. Therefore, they had won the battle.

Poria Mushrooms are produced in Yun Nan, An Hui, Hu Bei provinces etc. in China. They are light in flavour and neutral in nature. Daily dose is 10-15 g. They are attributed to heart, lung, spleen, spleen and kidney meridians. They have diuretic effects and remove dampness, nourish spleen and calm the mind.

Pharmacological study has demonstrated they have diuretic effect, anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit edema; they also regulate immune function through the regulation of immune molecules such as cytokines; they also have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-hypertonic stress activities, relax smooth muscles.

References

Rios J. L. (2011). Planta Med. 77 681–691. 10.1055/s-0030-1270823
Yuan-Zhong Wang J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 May 20;147(2):265-76.

Thursday, 9 July 2020

Chinese medicine story: Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, Liquorice Root)

This story was recorded in Ming dynasty <Gen Ji Bian>. In a morning a Royal Chinese medicine doctor for Imperial Family named Sheng Yin came into a Chinese medicine pharmacy where all the herbs were boiled and prepared. Suddenly he had headaches, dizziness and passed out unconsciously. Those royal Chinese medicine doctors didn’t know what to do. An ordinary Chinese medicine doctor heard about this and said he could help. He boiled concentrated Gan Cao and let Sheng Yin drink it. Soon after Sheng Yin woke up. All Royal Chinese medicine doctors were shocked. This ordinary Chinese medicine doctor told them that Sheng Yin didn’t have breakfast going into the pharmacy and his stomach Qi was weak and could not be resistant against all toxins from the herbal steams; he was poisoned by the herbal steams and that was why he passed out. Gan Cao could mediate all herbs and detox the herbs. Therefore, he woke up and felt better after treated with Gan Cao.

Another story told how Gan Cao got its name. In a remote village, a Chinese medicine doctor went for home visit, meanwhile many patients came to his place waiting to see him. His wife didn’t know when he would come back. She tasted the dry plant for cooking fire and it was sweet. She chopped the liquorice and gave them to those patients. A few days later those patients came back with gifts for the Chinese medicine doctor and told him they felt better after taking his herbs. His wife told him what happened when he was out to see patients. He asked what symptoms those patients had. They told him that some of them had weak stomach, some of them had coughing with phlegm and some of them had sore throat. After taking the herb, all their symptoms had gone. Since then this Chinese medicine doctor used this herb to treat those symptoms. This herb was called Gan Cao which means sweet plant.

Gan Cao are the dried root of liquorice. They are sweet in flavour and neutral in nature. Daily dose is 2-10 g. They are attributed to twelve meridians. They nourish spleen and Lung, reduce coughing, detoxify and reconcile all herbs.

Pharmacological studies have confirmed that Gan Cao exhibit a broad range of biological activities.

1, The antimicrobial activity includes antibacterial activity against various strains, antiviral and antifungal activities.

2, Anti inflammatory effects. Gan Cao has also been used to treat allergies and other inflammatory diseases. It was reported steroid-like anti-inflammatory activity of constituents derived from licorice root, similar to the action of hydrocortisone.

3, Antioxidant effect and anti-aging effects.

4, activities to protect the brain and liver, Anti-ulcer and antitumor effects etc.

References
Nazim A. Mamedov and Dilfuza Egamberdieva Plant and Human Health, Volume 3. 2019 Feb 12 : 1–21.

Wednesday, 8 July 2020

Is Coronavirus second wave inevitable?

Coronavirus second wave

Coronavirus is far from over. Some countries bring the infections down, but others are still dealing with large epidemics.

Those currently controlling the virus fear the second wave.

The infection cases are like waves on the sea. The number of infections goes up and then comes back down – this is one cycle which is one "wave" of coronavirus. For one wave to end, the virus would have been brought under control and cases fallen substantially. For a second wave to start a sustained rise in infections would be seen.

The second phase of Spanish flu a century ago was deadlier than the first. The question is a second wave of coronavirus inevitable like Spanish flu? And how bad could it be?

Thursday, 2 July 2020

Acupuncture helps reliving chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

Neuropathic pain related to chemotherapy (chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy [CIPN]) is a common problem in cancer treatment. The symptoms of CIPN include tingling, burning or pricking sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body. ), sensitive to noxious stimulation, pain and decreased physical activity. Some patients also experience motor symptoms, such as dropping items, splaying fingers, and inability to complete normal daily activities.

Acupuncture, which has drawn researchers’ attention in recent years, is widely accepted for its noninvasiveness and safety has been widely used in diabetes-related neuropathy and carpal tunnel syndrome as well as CIPN.

A recent study analysed the effects of acupuncture from 6 high quality randomized control trials with 386 cancer patients. They found that acupuncture led to significant improvements in pain score, acupuncture can effectively relieve CIPN pain and functional limitation.

References
Tsai-Ju Chien, et al Integr Cancer Ther. 2019; 18: 1534735419886662.

Wednesday, 1 July 2020

Recent research has shown that acupuncture is effective for eczema

Atopic eczema (AE) is the most common form of eczema which is a common inflammatory skin condition with characteristic of itchiness and recurrence. Acupuncture has been widely used for the treatment of many chronic diseases.

A recent study analysed a total of 434 participants in the eight RCTs. All participants were diagnosed with atopic eczema. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 70 years and the course of AE ranged from 6 months to 35 years.

The results of one included RCT showed that acupuncture was better than no treatment at reducing itch intensity measured using a visual analogue scale in patients with AE. The combined results of six RCTs showed that acupuncture was better than conventional medicine at reducing the eczema area and severity index (EASI) and the combined results of seven RCTs showed that acupuncture was better than conventional medicine in terms of global symptom improvement in AE.

The conclusion was that acupuncture might be effective at reducing itch intensity and may be more effective than conventional medicine at reducing EASI and improving the global symptoms of AE.

References
Ruimin Jiao,et al Acupunct Med. 2020 Feb; 38(1): 3–14.

Sunday, 28 June 2020

Chinese herbs are often used for unblocking the milk duct

Blocked milk duct
A blocked milk duct leading to milk trapped in the breast is one of the main causes of mastitis. If a breast doesn't completely empty at feedings, one of your milk ducts can become clogged. The blockage causes milk to back up, leading to breast infection. The inflammation results in breast pain, swelling, warmth and redness. You might also have fever and chills.

Chinese herbs are often used for unblocking the milk duct
Bai Zhi ( Dahurica Angelica root), Chi Shao (Red Peony Root), Dang Gui (Angelica root), Gan Cao (Liquorice), Gan Jiang (Dried ginger), Gou Qi Zi (Goji berries), Gua Lou (Trichosanthis Fruits), Jie Geng (Platycodon root), Jin Yin Hua (Honeysuckle flowers), Ju Hua (Chrysanthemum flowers), Lu Lu Tong ( Fructus Liquidambaris ), Pu Gong Ying (Dandelions), Niu Bang Zi (Greater burdock fruits), Mei Gui Hua (Rose flower), Tong Cao (Ricepaperplant Pith), Rou Gui (Cinnamon bark), Ru Xiang (Frankincense), Si Gua Luo (Sponge gourd), Wang Bu Liu Xin (Vaccariae Seeds), Zi Hua Di Ding (Viola herb).

Saturday, 27 June 2020

Chinese herbs are often used for lactation (breast milk boost)

Breastfeeding is good for both baby and mother.

The Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Baby: Breast milk provides perfect natural nutrition including vitamins, proteins and energy for baby’s needs to grow. Breast milk contains antibodies that help your baby fight off viruses and bacteria and have fewer infections. Breastfeeding lowers your baby's risk of having asthma or allergies. The physical closeness, skin-to-skin touching, and eye contact all help the baby bond with mother and feel secure. Breastfeeding has been linked to higher IQ scores in later childhood in some studies.

Breastfeeding Benefits for the Mother:
Breastfeeding burns extra calories helping lose pregnancy weight faster. It releases the hormone oxytocin, which helps the uterus return to its none pregnancy size and may reduce uterine bleeding after birth.
We use natural herbal ingredients in Chinese herbal medicine to boost milk production and help breastfeeding.

Chinese herbs are often used for lactation (breast milk boost)
Bai Shao (White Peony Root), Bai Zhi (Dahurica Angelica root), Dang Gui (Angelica root), Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom), Gan Cao (Liquorice),Ge Geng (Kudzu root), Huang Jing (Polygonatum Rhizome), Huang Qi (Astragalus Root), Long Yan Rou (Longan Fruit), Jie Geng (Balloon Flower Root), Lu Lu Tong ( Fructus Liquidambaris ), Mei Gui Hua (Rose flower), Mu Gua (Flowering quince),Rou Gui (Cinnamon bark), Sha Ren (Amomum fruit), Shan Yao (Chinese Yam), Si Gua Luo (Sponge gourd), Shu Di (Processed Rehmannia Root), Tong Cao (Ricepaperplant Pith), Wang Bu Liu Xin (Vaccariae Seeds), Yu Zhu (Angular solomon's seal root)
All herbs are used for lactation without artificial aroma, preservative, or sugar. They are 100% natural plants. They are good for both mothers and babies.
References
https://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/nursing-basics#1

Sunday, 21 June 2020

Chinese herbs are often used for boosting energy, balance hormones and reduce anxiety

Fatigue and boosting energy

Fatigue is one of the most chief complaints in clinical settings. There are two main types of fatigue: physical and mental. With physical fatigue you may find it physically hard to do the things you usually do, such as walking, climbing the stairs. With mental fatigue, you may find it harder to concentrate on things and stay focused. You may feel sleepy or have difficulty staying awake while working. Physical and mental fatigue are different, but they often occur together. Repeated physical exhaustion can lead to mental fatigue over time and vice versa. The main symptom of fatigue is exhaustion with physical or mental activity. You don’t feel refreshed after resting or sleeping and hard to carry on daily activities. The symptoms of fatigue may be physical, mental, or emotional. Common symptoms associated with fatigue can include: muscles aching, a lack of motivation, drowsiness, difficulty concentrating or learning new tasks, gastrointestinal problems, such as bloating, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, headaches, mood changes, irritability and slowed reaction etc. Poor sleep, stress anxiety, imbalanced hormones, chronic pain often are associated to the fatigue.

Chinese herbs are often used for boosting energy, balance hormones and reduce anxiety
Bai Zhu ( White Atractylodes), Bai Zi Ren (Biota Seed), Chai Hu (Bupleurum Root), Chen Pi,(Sun Dried Tangerine Peels), Da Zao(Date), Chi Shao (Red Peony Root), Chuan Xiong (Sichuan Lovage Rhizome), Dan Shen (Red Sage Root), Dang Gui(Dong Quai), Dang Shen (Codonopsis Pilosula), Dong Chong (Cordyceps).Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom), Gan Cao (Licorice Root), Gou Qi Zi (Goji Berry), Han Lian Cao (Eclipta), He Shou Wu (Fo-Ti), Hong Jing Tian (A. Rhodiola), Huang Qi (Astragalus Root), Jie Geng (Balloon Flower Root), Long Yan Rou( Longan Fruit), Mu Dan Pi (Tree Peony Root Bark), Mai Men Dong (Radix Ophiopogonis), Mu Xiang (Costus Root ), Ren Shen (Ginseng), Sha Ren (Cardamom Seed), Shan Yao (Chinese Yam), Shan Yu Rou ( Cornus Fruit) , Sheng Jiang (Ginger), Shi Chang Pu (Acorus Root), Shu Di (Processed Rehmannia Root), Suan Zao Ren (Sour Jujube Seeds), Tian Men Dong (Wild Asparagus), Tu Si Zi (Dodder), Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Berry), Xuan Shen (Ningpo Figwort), Yuan Zhi (Polygala Root), Ze Xie (Alisma).

Thursday, 18 June 2020

Chinese herbs are often used for insomnia

Insomnia

Sleep is a natural state of mind and body. During sleep, most of the body’s system are in an anabolic state, the consciousness is altered, sensory activity is inhibited, muscle activity is reduced and the body interaction with surroundings is reduced. Sleep helps to restore the immune, nervous, skeletal and muscular systems; It is also vital to maintain mood, memory and cognitive function. The internal circadian clock promotes sleep daily at night.

If you have regular problems of sleeping, this could be a sleep disorder. Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder. People with insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. They often don’t feel refreshed when they wake up from sleeping.

The symptoms of insomnia include trouble falling or staying asleep, waking too early in the morning, unrefreshing sleep. The accompanied symptoms include fatigue, mood changes, irritability, difficulty concentrating during the day.

Chinese herbs are often used for insomnia

Bai Zhu (White Atractylodes), Bai Zi Ren (Biota Seed), Da Zao(Date), Dang Gui(Dong Quai), Dang Shen (Codonopsis Pilosula), Dan Shen (Red Sage Root), Dong Chong (Cordyceps), Gan Cao (Licorice Root), Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom), Hong Hua (Safflower), Huang Qi(Astragalus Root), Jie Geng (Balloon Flower Root), Long Yan Rou( Longan Fruit), Mai Men Dong (Radix Ophiopogonis), Mu Xiang (Costus Root), Ren Shen (Ginseng), Sheng Jiang (Ginger), Shi Chang Pu (Acorus Root), Shu Di (Processed Rehmannia Root), Suan Zao Ren (Sour Jujube Seeds), Tao Ren (Peach Kernel), Tian Men Dong (Wild Asparagus), Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Berry), Xuan Shen (Ningpo Figwort), Yuan Zhi(Polygala Root).

Saturday, 13 June 2020

Chinese herbs are often used for infertility

Chinese herbs are often used for infertility

Ai Ye (Mugwort Leaf), Ba Jie Tian ( Medicinal Morinda Root ), Bai Zhu (White Atractylodes), Bai Shao (White Peony Root), Chai Hu ( Bupleuri Radix),Chi Shao (Red Peony Root), Chuan Xiong (Lovage Tuber, Rhizoma Ligustici Wallachii), Da Zao (Date), Dang Gui (Angelica root), Dang Shen (Codonopsis Pilosula), Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom). Fu Pen Zi (Chinese Raspberry), Gan Cao (Licorice Root), Gou Qi Zi (Goji Berry), Han Lian Cao (Eclipta), He Shou Wu (Fo-Ti), Hong Hua ( Safflower), Hong Jing Tian (Rhodiola Rosea), Huang Jing (Polygonatum Rhizome), Huang Qi (Astragalus Root), Ji Xue Teng (Millettia), Lian Zi(Lotus Seed), Long Yan Rou (Longan Fruit), Lu Lu Tong ( Fructus Liquidambaris ), Mu Dan Pi (Tree Peony Root Bark), Mu Xiang (Costus Root), Ren Shen (Ginseng), Rou Gui (Cinnamon Bark), Sang Ji Sheng (Mulberry Mistletoe Stems), Shan Zhu Yu (Cornus), Shan Yao (Chinese Yam), Sheng Jiang (Ginger), Suan Zao Ren (Sour Jujube Seeds), Shu Di (Processed Rehmannia Root), Tao Ren ( Peach Kernel), Tu Si Zi (Chinese Dodder Seeds), Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Berry), Xian Mao (Curculigo), Xiang Fu (Cyperus Rhizome), Xu Duan (Teasel Root), Yuan Zhi (Polygala Root), Ze Xie (Alisma).

Friday, 12 June 2020

Chinese herbs that are often used for skin conditions

Chinese herbs that are often used for skin conditions

Bai Mao Gen (Woolly Grass Rhizome), Bai Shao (White Peony Root), Bai Zhu (White Atractylodes ), Bei Sha Shen (Radix Glehniae), Bo He (Peppermint), Cang Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Lancea), Chai Hu (Bupleurum Root), Che Qian Zi (Plantago Seed, or Plaintain Seed), Chi Shao (Red Peony Root), Chuan Xin Lian (Andrographis), Dan Shen (Red Sage Root), Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Di Fu Zi (Kochia Fruit), Lian Qiao (Forsythia Fruit), Ku Di Ding (Herba Violae), Fang Feng (Radix Ledeouriellae), Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom ),Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, Licorice Root), Huang Qin (Radix Scutellaria), Jin Yin Hua (Honeysuckle Flower), Jing Jie (Herba Schizonepetae), Ku Shen (Redix Sophorae Flavescenti), Long Dan Cao (Chinese Gentian Root), Mu Dan Pi (Tree Peony Bark), Niu Bang Zi (Fructus Arctii), Pu Gong Ying (Dandelion), Da Huang (Rhubarb Root), Qian Cao (Madder Root), Sheng Di Huang (Raw Rehmannia Root), Tao Ren (Peach Kernel), Tong Cao (Rice Paper Pith), Tu Fu Ling(Sarsaparilla Root), Yi Yi Ren (Coix Seed), Ze Xie (Alisma), Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Zhi Zi (Gardenia Fruit), Zhu Ye (Bamboo Leaves).

Tuesday, 9 June 2020

Chinese medicine stories: Rehmanniae Radix, Rehmanniae Root, Di Huang


Rehmanniae Radix, Rehmanniae Root, Di Huang
It was some time in Tang dynasty that a plague broke up along the downstream of Huang He river. Many people died. The county Mayor went to herb King temple in mountain Shen Nong to ask protection. He was offered an herb plant called Di Huang (Huang meant Emperor which meant that it was given by Emperor. He was told that these herb plants grew in a place over the mountain. The Mayor got some people to climb up to the mountains to pick up the herbs. The herbs saved many people’s lives. After the outbreak, people started to plant the herbs and called them Di Huang due to their yellow colour. Huang meant yellow this time not Emperor.
Rehmanniae Radix are cultivated in many provinces on the south of Yang Zi river in China, such as Hu Bei and Zhe Jiang provinces.
They are sweet and a little bitter in taste and very cold, non-toxic in nature. They are attributed to the heart, liver, and kidneys meridians.
Therefore, it clears the heat and cools the blood. It is used to remove toxin from the blood to detoxify, increase body fluid, and reduce thirst. It is also used for breaking fevers, cardiac stimulation, and hemostasis.
Morden pharmacological effects:
1, Rehmanniae Radix have anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects. They are effective in treating dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis.
2, They are effective in reducing blood sugar and in restoring STZ-induced pancreatic islet damage.
3, They are effective in activating the autonomic nervous system, but effectively affects vital signs.
4, They are effective for improving cognitive function, antidepressant action, and immunity control, for treating cervical cancer and nephrotic hypertension, and for repairing damaged liver tissue. It can also reduce intestinal peristalsis.
References
Seok-hee Kim  et al J Pharmacopuncture. 2017 Jun; 20(2): 81–88.

Friday, 5 June 2020

Longan arillus , Longan fruits, Long Yan Rou, Gui Yuan


It was long time ago. There was an evil dragon in Fu Jiang province. Every August this dragon brought hurricanes to the area to destroy crops, collapse the houses, kill people and animals. Local people had to leave their home and hide in caves. A young guy called Gui Yuan who was good at Martial arts decided to fight and get rid of the evil dragon. In the August, the dragon with the hurricanes arrived. Gui Yuan gave it pork and lamb marinated with alcohol which made its mouth-watering. It ate all the food in a second and lay down and fall sleep. Gui Yuan stabbed the its left eye and took the eyeball out. It rolled with extreme pain and wanted to escape. Gui Yuan grabbed its dragon horns, rode on it, and took its right eyes out. The dragon screamed with pain and died, however Gui Yuan was injured badly during the fight and sadly died as well. He was buried with the dragoneyes. Hereafter, a tree grew there, and its fruits were like dragon eyes which were called Long Yan which means dragon eyes. These fruits were also called Gui Yuan in memory of the hero Gui Yuan.  
Longan fruits are widely distributed in Southeast Asia, such as South China, (Fu Jian province is number one producer in China), Taiwan, Vietnam, and Thailand. Longan fruits are sweet in taste and warm in nature. Their white arils are delicious and edible and full of nutrition, such as vitamins A and C, amino acids, and minerals including iron and magnesium, fibers etc. They are attributed to heart and spleen meridians. Longan fruits can be used as Chinese herbal medicine. Daily dosage is 9-15g. They replenish heart and spleen, nourish blood and sooth nerves.
Their modern pharmacological effects include:
1, Calming the nerves with neuroprotection, relieving anxiety and insomnia, improving nerve pain and swelling.
2, antioxidant effects, antiaging, boosting energy, improving memory,
3, immunomodulatory effects and strengthening immunity
4, others: such as anti-diabetes, skin care, anticancer, promoting blood metabolism to tonic blood, help vision etc.
References
Xiang-rong Zhu  J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2019 Jun; 20(6): 503–512.

Thursday, 4 June 2020

The Chinese medicine formula used in China for Coronavirus treatment

This is the Chinese medicine formula used in China for Coronavirus treatment
 from National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19

(Trial Version 7)

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment

The COVID-19 belongs to plague in TCM with the etiology of epidemic factor exposure. Different regions can refer to the following plans for syndrome differentiation and treatment, according to the disease, local climate characteristics and different constitutions. Prescriptions which exceed maximum dose according to pharmacopoeia should be used under the guidance of a physician.

(1) Medical observation period

1.1 Clinical manifestation: fatigue with gastrointestinal discomfort

Recommended Chinese patent medicine: Huoxiang Zhengqi Capsule (Pill, Liquid, Oral liquid)

1.2 Clinical manifestation: fatigue with fever

Recommended Chinese patent medicines: Jinhua Qinggan Granule, Lianhua Qingwen Capsule (Granule), Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (Granule)

(2) Clinical treatment period (confirmed cases)

1) Qingfei Paidu Decoction

Scope of application: in accordance with the clinical observations of doctors in various locations, it is suitable for mild, moderate and severe cases, and can be used reasonably with the consideration of the actual conditions of critically ill patients.

The basic formula: Ma Huang (Ephedrae Herba) 9g, Zhi Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 6g, Xing Ren (Armeniacae Semen) 9g, Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) (decocted first) 15-30g, Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi Ramulus) 9g, Ze Xie (Alismatis Rhizoma) 9g, Zhu Ling (Polyporus) 9g, Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma) 9g, Fu Ling (Poria) 15g, Chai Hu (Bupleuri Radix) 16g, Huang Qin (Scutellariae Radix) 6g, Jiang Ban Xia (Pinellinae Rhizoma Praeparatum) 9g, Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma recens) 9g, Zi Wan (Asteris Radix) 9g, Kuan Dong Hua (Farfarae Flos) 9g, She Gan (Belamcandae Rhizoma) 9g, Xi Xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) 6g, Shan Yao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma) 12g, Zhi Shi (Aurantii Fructus immaturus) 6g, Chen Pi (Citri reticulatae Pericarpium) 6g, Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) 9g.

Administration: traditional Chinese herbal pieces in decoction. One package per day. Take warm twice (40 minutes after meal in the morning and evening). One course of treatment is for three packages.

If possible, half bowl of rice soup after taking the decoction is advised. For the patients with dry tongue due to fluid depletion, one bowl of rice soup is suggested. (Note: If no fever, the dosage of gypsum should be reduced. In case with fever or high fever, the amount of gypsum can be increased. If the symptoms improve but not toally recovered, continue the second course of treatment. If the patient has a special condition or other underlying diseases, the formula can be modified according to the actual situation in the second course. If the symptoms disappear, the drug should be discontinued.

Reference: The General Office of the National Health Commission of the people’s Republic of China The Office of the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine “Notice on Recommending the Use of Qingfei Paidu Decoction in Pneumonia Treated with Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine for the COVID-19 Infection” (National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine Office Medical Letter [2020] No.22)

2) Mild case

 Cold-damp constraint in the lung pattern

Clinical manifestation: fever, fatigue, generalized body aches, cough, expectoration, chest tightness and labored breathing, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting and sticky stool, pale enlarged tongue with tooth marks or light red tongue and coating which is white, thick, curd-like, and greasy or white and greasy, and soggy of slippery pulse.

Recommended formula: Sheng Ma Huang (Ephedrae Herba) 6g, Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) 15g, Xing Ren (Armeniacae Semen) 9g, Qiang Huo (Notopterygii Rhizoma seu Radix) 15g, Ting Li Zi (Lepidii/Descurainiae Semen) 15g, Guan Zhong (Cyrtomii Rhizoma) 9g, Di Long (Pheretima) 15g, Xu Chang Qing (Cynanchi paniculati Radix) 15g, Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) 15g, Pei Lan (Eupatorii Herba) 9g, Cang Zhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma) 15g, Yun Ling (Poria) 45g, Sheng Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma) 30g, Jiao San Xian (Jiao Shan Zha (Crataegi Fructus), Jiao Shen Qu (Massa medicate fermentata), and Jiao Mai Ya (Hordei Fructus germinatus)) 9g each, Hou Po (Magnoliae officinalis Cortex) 15g, Jiao Bing Lang (Arecae Semen) 9g, Wei Cao Guo (Tsaoko Fructus) 9g, Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma recens) 15g.

Administration: one package daily, 600ml after decocting, divide into three times, equally in the morning, afternoon and evening, take before meal.

 Damp-heat accumulation in the lung pattern

Clinical manifestation: low-grade fever or absence of fever, slight aversion to cold, fatigue, heavy sensation in the head and body, muscle soreness, dry cough with little sputum, sore throat, thirst without desire to drink, or accompanied with chest tightness and epigastric fullness, absence of sweating or disturbed hidrosis, or vomiting with anorexia, loose stool or sticky stool. The tongue is light red and coating is white, thick and greasy or thin and yellow. The pulse is slippery and rapid or soggy.

Recommended formula: Bing Lang (Arecae Semen) 10g, Cao Guo (Tsaoko Fructus) 10g, Hou Po (Magnoliae officinalis Cortex) 10g, Zhi Mu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) 10g, Huang Qin (Scutellariae Radix) 10g, Chai Hu (Bupleuri Radix) 10g, Chi Shao (Paeoniae Radix rubra) 10g, Lian Qiao (Forsythiae Fructus) 15g, Qing Hao (Artemisiae annuae Herba) (added later) 10g, Cang Zhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma) 10g, Da Qjng Ye (Isatidis Folium) 10g, Sheng Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 5g.

Administration: one pack daily, 400ml after decocting, divide into twice, and half in the morning and half in the evening.

3) Moderate case

 Damp-toxin constraint in the lung pattern

Clinical manifestation: fever, cough with little sputum or yellow sputum, chest tightness and shortness of breath, abdominal distension, and constipation with difficult defecation. The tongue body is dark-red, and tongue shape is enlarged. The cotaing is yellow greasy or yellow dry. The pulse is slippery and rapid or wiry and slippery.

Recommended formula: Sheng Ma Huang (Ephedrae Herba) 6g, Ku Xing Ren (Armeniacae Semen) 15g, Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) 30g, Sheng Yi Yi Ren (Coicis Semen) 30g, Mao Cang Zhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma) 10g, Guang Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) 15g, Qing Hao Cao (Artemisiae annuae Herba) 12g, Hu Zhang (Polygoni cuspidati Rhizoma) 20g, Ma Bian Cao (Verbenae Herba) 30g, Gan Lu Gen (Phragmitis Rhizoma) 30g, Ting Li Zi (Lepidii/Descurainiae Semen) 15g, Hua Ju Hong (Citri grandis Exocarpium rubrum) 15g, Sheng Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 10g.

Administration: one package daily, 400ml after decocting, and equally divide into twice, in the morning and evening.

 Cold-damp obstructing the lung pattern

Clinical manifestation: low-grade fever, unsurfaced fever or no fever, dry cough with little sputum, lassitude and fatigue, chest tightness, stomach discomfort, or nausea, and loose stool. The tongue is pale or light red and coating is white or white greasy. The pulse is soggy.

Recommended formula: Cang Zhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma) 15g, Chen Pi (Citri reticulatae Pericarpium) 10g, Hou Po (Magnoliae officinalis Cortex) 10g, Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) 10g, Cao Guo (Tsaoko Fructus) 6g, ShengMa Huang (Ephedrae Herba) 6g, Qiang Huo (Notopterygii Rhizoma seu Radix) 10g, Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma recens) 10g, Bing Lang (Arecae Semen) 10g.

Administration: one package daily, 400ml after decocting, and equally divide into twice, in the morning and evening.

4) Severe case

 Epidemic toxin blocking the lung pattern

Clinical manifestation: fever with red face, cough with little yellow and sticky sputum, or blood-stained sputum, chest tightness and short of breath, lassitude, dryness, bitterness and stickiness in the mouth, nausea and loss of appetite, difficult defecation, and scanty dark urine. The tongue is red with yellow greasy coating. The pulse is slippery and rapid.

Recommended formula: Huashi Baidu Formula

The basic formula: Sheng Ma Huang (Ephedrae Herba) 6g, Xing Ren (Armeniacae Semen) 9g, Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) 15g, Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 3g, Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) (added later) 10g, Hou Po (Magnoliae officinalis Cortex) 10g, Cang Zhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma) 15g, Cao Guo (Tsaoko Fructus) 10g, Fa Ban Xia (Pinellinae Rhizoma Praeparatum) 9g, Fu Ling (Poria) 15g, Sheng Da Huang (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma) (added later) 5g, Sheng Huang Qi (Astragali Radix) 10g, Ting Li Zi (Lepidii/Descurainiae Semen) 10g, Chi Shao (Paeoniae Radix rubra) 10g.

Administration: 1-2 packages daily, decoction, 100-200ml each time, 2-4 times per day, oral administration or nasal feeding.

 Blazing of both qi and ying pattern

Clinical manifestation: high fever with polydipsia, tachypnoea and shortness of breath, delirium and unconsciousness, blurred vision or accompanied with macules and papules, or hematemesis, epistaxis or convulsion of the four limbs. The tongue is crimson with little or no coating. The pulse is deep, thready and rapid, or floating, large and rapid pulse.

Recommended formula: Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) (decocted first) 30-60g, Zhi Mu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) 30g, Sheng Di (Rehmanniae Radix) 30-60g, Shui Niu Jiao (Bubali Cornu) (decocted first) 30g, Chi Shao (Paeoniae Radix rubra) 30g, Xuan Shen (Scrophulariae Radix) 30g, Lian Qiao (Forsythiae Fructus) 15g, Dan Pi (Moutan Cortex) 15g, Huang Lian (Coptidis Rhizoma) 6g, Zhu Ye (Phyllostachys nigrae Folium) 12g, Ting Li Zi (Lepidii/Descurainiae Semen) 15g, Sheng Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 6g.

Administration: one pack daily, decoction, Shi Gao and Shui Niu Jiao should be decocted first, 100-200 ml each time, 2-4 times per day, oral administration or nasal feeding.

Recommended Chinese patent medicines: Xiyanping injection, Xuebijing injection, Reduning injection, Tanreqing injection, and Xingnaojing injection. Drugs with similar effects can be selected according to individual conditions, or can be used in combination according to clinical symptoms. Traditional Chinese medicine injection can be used together with TCM decoction.

5) Critical case

 Internal blockage and external desertion pattern

Clinical manifestation: Dyspnea, panting on exertion or mechanical ventilation required, accompanied with unconsciousness and dysphoria, sweating, cold extremities. The tongue is dark and purple with thick greasy or dry coating. The pulse is floating and large without root.

Recommended formula: Take Su He Xiang Wan or Angong Niuhuang Wan with the following decoction composed of Ren Shen (Ginseng Radix) 15g, Hei Shun Pian (Aconiti Radix lateralis praeparata) (decocted first) 10g, Shan Zhu Yu (Corni Fructus) 15g.

If there is mechanical ventilation with abdominal distension, constipation or difficult defecation, 5-10g of Sheng Da Huang (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma) can be considered. If patient-ventilator asynchrony occurs, 5-10g of Sheng Da Huang and 5-10g of Mang Xiao (Natrii Sulfas) can be used together with sedation and muscle relaxant.

Recommended Chinese patent medicines: Xuebijing injection, Reduning injection, Tanreqing injection, Xingnaojing injection, Shenfu injection, Shengmai injection, and Shenmai injection. Drugs with similar effects can be selected according to individual conditions, or can be used in combination according to clinical symptoms. Traditional Chinese medicine injection can be used together with TCM decoction.

Note: Recommended usage of TCM injections for severe and critical cases

The use of TCM injections follows the principle of starting from a small dosage and modifying based on pattern identification in the instructions. The recommended usage is as follows:

Viral infection or combined with mild bacterial infection: 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250ml with Xiyanping injection 100mg (bid), or 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250ml with Reduning injection 20ml, or 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250ml with Tanreqing injection 40ml (bid).

High fever with disturbance of consciousness: 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250ml with Xingnaojing injection 20ml (bid).

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or / and multiple organ failure (MOF): 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250ml with Xuebijing injection 100ml (bid).

Immunosuppression: glucose injection 250ml with Shenmai injection 100ml or Shengmai injection 20-60ml (bid).

6) Convalescence

 Lung-spleen qi deficiency pattern

Clinical manifestation: shortness of breath, lassitude and fatigue, poor appetite with nausea and vomiting, abdominal fullness, a sense of incomplete evacuation, and sticky loose stool. The tongue is pale and enlarged with white greasy coating.

Recommended formula: Fa Ban Xia (Pinellinae Rhizoma Praeparatum) 9g, Chen Pi (Citri reticulatae Pericarpium) 10g, Dang Shen (Codonopsis Radix) 15g, Zhi Huang Qi (Astragali Radix) 30g, Chao Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma) 10g, Fu Ling (Poria) 15g, Huo Xiang (Pogostemonis Herba) 10g, Sha Ren (AmomiFructus) (added later) 6g, Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 6g.

Administration: one package daily, 400ml after decocting, and equally divide into twice in the morning and evening.

 Deficiency of both qi and yin pattern

Clinical manifestation: fatigue, shortness of breath, dry mouth, thirst, heart palpitation, profuse sweating, poor appetite, low-grade fever or no fever, dry cough with little sputum. The tongue is dry tongue with scanty fluid. The pulse is thready or weak and forceless.

Recommended formula: Nan Sha Shen (Adenophorae Radix) 10g, Bei Sha Shen (Glehniae Radix) 10g, Mai Dong (Ophiopogonis Radix) 15g, Xi Yang Shen (Panacis quinquefolii Radix) 6g, Wu Wei Zi (Schisandrae Fructus) 6g, Sheng Shi Gao (Gypsum fibrosum) 15g, Dan Zhu Ye (Lophatheri Herba) 10g, Sang Ye (Mori Folium) 10g, Lu Gen (Phragmitis Rhizoma) 15g, Dan Shen (Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix) 15g, Sheng Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix) 6g.

Administration: one package daily, 400ml after decocting, and equally divide into twice in the morning and evening.

Translated by Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
References
ww.satcm.gove.cn

Why is it good to drink ginger tea during coronavirus outbreak?

Ginger can help your defence system.

Macrophages a type of defence cells in the body play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions was shown that it regulates immune function by inhibiting macrophage activation. A study has shown that ginger ginger improves on cytotoxicity induced by paraben (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) on red blood cells (RBC) in vitro from healthy adult human beings (25-30 years).

Ginger can help protect human bronchial epithelial cells.

Traditionally, ginger is used as an antiinflammatory drug. A recent study tested the effect of ginger extract in inflammation of human bronchial epithelial cells. They found that ginger extracts can reduce inflammatory substances production and suggested that distinct ginger compounds could be used as antiinflammatory drugs in respiratory infections.

Ginger reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress

This review investigated the effects of ginger supplementation on markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. They evaluated the effects of ginger on some inflammation markers including serum CRP (C-reactive protein), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 (interleukin-6), PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), TAC (total antioxidant capacity), and MDA (malondialdehyde). The results of this study indicated a statistically significant effect of ginger on serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, TAC, and MDA levels following ginger supplementation in compared to the controls. Also, the effects of ginger on serum PGE2 was marginally significant. They suggested that ginger supplementation has a significant effects on serum inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.

References

Tripathi S et al BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jan 3;8:1. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-1.

Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function.

Asnani V, Verma RJ. Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 Mar-Apr;63(2):117-9. Aqueous ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced cytotoxicity.

Podlogar JA, Verspohl EJ. Phytother Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):333-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3558. Epub 2011 Jun 23. Antiinflammatory effects of ginger and some of its components in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.

Jalali M et al Phytother Res. 2020 Mar 8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6638. [Epub ahead of print]

The effects of ginger supplementation on markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Wednesday, 3 June 2020

Why is it good to eat garlic during coronavirus pandemic?

The benefits of garlic to health have been indicated for centuries and the wide variety of effects garlic preparations and extracts has been reported are beneficial and useful. Recently garlic extract Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. A review assessed the most recent experimental results. They suggested that garlic boosts the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation.

References
Arreola R et al J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:401630. doi: 10.1155/2015/401630. Epub 2015 Apr 19.

Tuesday, 2 June 2020

Jujubae Fructus, Jujube Fruits, Chinese jujube, Chinese dates

In ancient China, XuanYuan tribe had a large jujube forest in Xin Zheng, He Nan province. The fruits were called Da Zao Jujube. At the war of Yellow Emperor and Yan Emperor, the Yellow Emperor’s army went to the south in the rainy season. It was raining everyday and it was very humid. An infectious disease broke out in the army. Once people got infected, their face was yellow and swollen, their tummy was bloated. If they did not get treated in time, they would have risk to be defeated. The Yellow Emperor was extremely anxious, but the army doctor did not know how to treat this disease. A soldier named Zhang Chao who was a Chinese Medicine Doctor went back to his tent and brought some Da Zao produced in his hometown Xin Zheng as a primer to boil the herbs. All sick soldiers were recovered after taking the medicine. The whole army were very inspired and won the battle. Therefore, the Yellow Emperor unified China. The Yellow Emperor credited the Da Zao for the unification of China and warded Da Zao produced in Xin Zheng as a tribute to the Emperor.

There were proverbs about Da Zao: eating three Da Zao, you don’t need to see doctor; eating three Da Zao, you don’t look od at 100 year old; if you want sleep well, eat Da Zao before go to bed.

Another Da Zao story. A woman always felt sad and cried during the day every day without any reasons. Doctor gave her Hong Zao soup to take. Subsequently, she got better.

Jujube are the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and have been widely used as food and Chinese herbal medicine for over 3,000 years. In Huangdi Neijing (475-221 BC), an ancient Chinese book on herbal medicine, jujube was described as one of the five most valuable fruits in China. In Shennong Bencao Jing (300 BC-200 AD), an earlier book recoding medicinal herbs, jujube was considered as herbal medicines. Jujube are produced along the value of yellow river, Jujube from Xin Jiang province are the best. Jujube are sweet in flavour and warm in nature. They nourish blood, calm the mind, relieve mental tension, improve quality of sleep, and regulate digestive system.

Morden pharmacological effects of Jujube include

neuro protection, calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep, learning and memory.

Antidepression

containing amino acids, vitamins such as Vit C, minerals such as zinc.

References
Jianping Chen et al Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 3019568.

Monday, 1 June 2020

Sparkling of acupuncture fever in the US

Many people know Mr Henry Kissinger's secret trip from Pakistan to Beijing in 1971 paving the way for President Nixon's visit to China in 1972. To report this, the first U.S. reporter James Reston (1909e1995) was invited by Chinese government to visit China. When he arrived at Beijing at 12th July 1971 and it was too late because Mr Henry Kissinger has already left a day before. He missed a golden chance to cover the breaking news of Kissinger’s visit to China.

A few days later after his arrival, he was told this news. James Reston suddenly felt a stabbing pain in his groin. He went to see doctors in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Anti-Imperialist Hospital and was diagnosed as acute appendicitis. Next day after an appendectomy surgery, he was in considerable uncomfortable and received acupuncture from Dr Zhangyuan Li. The needles were inserted into his right elbow and below his knees. The needles sent twinges of pain through Reston’s limbs and diverted his attention from the distress in his stomach. Meanwhile he also received moxibustion on his abdomen. There was noticeable relaxation of the pressure and distension within an hour and no recurrence of the problem thereafter. Reston wrote an article entitled Now, About My Operation in Peking in his hospital bed in China and this article appeared on the front page of the New York Times the next day along with the Apollo 15 lift-off on July 26,1971.

What a wonderful story for millions of Americans who were so curious about what was happening in China after its doors have been closed for more than twenty years. Reston's article was the first genuine American acupuncture experience in P. R. China to appear in the mainstream Western media. His story of the ‘Oriental Apollo’ unintentionally sparked widespread ‘acupuncture fever’ across the United States in the coming years. In early 70s, acupuncture stories appeared in many major American media and publications, including Time, People, Life, Newsweek and many more.

References
Yongming Li Journal of traditional Chinese medical sciences 2014 1:81-83

Saturday, 30 May 2020

Chinese medicine stories : Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, dried tangerine peel (Chen Pi)

Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, dried tangerine peel (Chen Pi)

In Song dynasty, Zhongyan Fan, a famous official’s mother was sick, but she didn’t want to take Chinese medicine. Zhongyan Fan was worried. One day he went to see a doctor for his mother and the doctor asked him to fertilise Glutinous rice together with an herb for her mother. His mother drank this herbal tea and got better gradually. This herb was Chen Pi.

Another story about Chen Pi was over two thousand years ago. A couple of Phoenixes was taking a citrus plant from heaven to earth. When they passed in Xin Hui a place in Guang Zhong province, they were amazed by the beauty of the scenery: a winding river surrounded the green mountains, sunset was falling on the lake, the water was sparkling as a diamond. They left the plant there and started to play. They went back to heaven when it was dark and forgot the citrus plant. Then the two plants grew by the lake in Xin Hui. The local people found out later that this orange skins had a great flavour, helped digestion, removed dampness and phlegm.

The third story was about Chen Pi and a famous Chinese medicine doctor Hua Tuo. One day Hua Tuo were doing home visits. When the boat passed Gang Jiang, he was suddenly ill caused by cold wind there. He had fever, coughing, dry mouth. At that time, his herbs for cold were run out. He saw the orange trees along the shore and thought that oranges can help reduce thirsty. He ate a few whole oranges with the skins. By the evening, he felt better not coughing that much. He was wondered if the oranges can be effective for coughing. Next day, the two boatmen were sick with coughing. He gave them orange to eat. But one boatman’s coughing stopped, but the other one’s didn’t. He asked them and found that the one who ate orange skin stopped coughing, the other one didn’t eat the orange skin. Since then, he kept the orange skin whenever he ate oranges and he found that the longer the orange skin was kept, the better it stopped coughing. This was why the aged orange skin was called Chen Pi meaning aged orange skin.

Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. It has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine prescription for about 2000 years up to now and has the function of strengthening spleen and stomach qi, eliminating dampness and phlegm. It is bitter in flavour and warm in nature. Daily dose is 3-10 g.

They have been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, loss of appetite, cough with phlegm.

Other pharmacological effects include having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, and a protective effect on the liver and nerve.

References
Xin Yu et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jun 28;220:265-282.

Thursday, 28 May 2020

Chinese medicine story :Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chinese Angelica (Dang Gui)

Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chinese Angelica (Dang Gui)

Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang Gui). Dang Gui means return in Chinese. In ancient China, there were a newly married couple. The husband decided to go to mountains to pick up some herbs. He and his wife had an agreement: if he didn’t come back in three years, she may marry to someone else. The wife missed her husband during the time and became ill with irregular periods, agitating and dizziness. After three years she married someone else. Before long his ex-husband came back and asked her why didn’t you wait for me to return? The wife cried and said that you should returned n three years, but you didn’t, also there was no letter at all; Now I had remarried and regretted so much. This guy then gave all his herbs to his ex-wife for her treatment. The wife took the herbs tea and got better afterwards. Since then, this herb was named Dang Gui.

Another story about Dang Gui was in Three Kingdom. After Liu Chan from Shu gave in, Jiang Wei who was a commander in Jiang Men had to fake his surrendering to find a chance later to rebuild Shu again. His mother didn’t know about his plan, sent a letter to blame his surrendering. Jiang Wei could say his plan to his mother, just in case this plan was leaked. He worked out how to tell his mother about his thought eventually. He sent two bags of Chinese herbs to his mother: one was Yuan Zhi meaning ambition; another one was Dang Gui meaning returning to home. His mother understood he had a great plan. Not to let him worry about her, she killed herself.

Angelicae Sinensis Radix, were firstly recorded in a classical masterpiece of TCM Shennong Bencao Jing (200–300 A.D., Han Dynasty). They are so-called “female ginseng”, well-known for treatment of intractable gynecological disorders. They are one of the most used Chinese herbs. It is said that nine out of ten herb formula comprise Angelicae Sinensis Radix. They are mainly produced in south east of Gan Su province. They are spicy in flavour and warm in nature. They are attributed to liver, goldbladder and Pericardium Meridians. They replenish and invigorate blood; regulate periods and alleviate period pain; relieve constipation. Daily dose is 6-12 g.

1, Angelicae Sinensis Radix are used for treating blood stasis, known as microcirculation problems in modern pathology. They have vasodilation effect and improving microcirculation; anti-arthrosclerosis effects; anti-platelet aggregation effects; anti-inflammatory effects; anti-oxidative effects

2, Angelicae Sinensis Radix mimic the effects of estrogen in the body and help balance women’s hormone levels, both restraining and supplementing the body’s production of estrogen as needed.

3,They are very widely used to help establish, support and maintain healthy menstrual balance in women.

4, They have analgesic and mild sedative (calming, relaxing) actions. They are used to treat menstrual and menopausal symptoms, including migraine, cramps, mood fluctuations, and hot flashes. It is also said to help speed a woman’s recovery from childbirth and symptoms of low energy/chronic fatigue.

References
Yi-Chian Wu & Ching-Liang Hsieh
https://cmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-8546-6-32

Wednesday, 27 May 2020

Muscle aging

Skeletal muscle is responsible for voluntary movement control of the human body. Aging process leads to a decrease in muscle mass and strength.

In age 20-30, the muscles are in their maximum of physical capacity. In age 30-50 changes in muscle mass, power and strength are small. After age 50, muscle changes with aging process are pronounced which is more than 15% of strength loss per decade. In some research this could start from 40s.

Aging muscles with

Declined muscle fibers

muscle Type II fast twitch fibers appeared smaller and flatter. This results in reduced muscle power

Reduced muscle mass

Muscle mass loss is caused by reduced numbers of muscle fibers. This reduction in muscle cross-sectional area associated with decreases in contractile structures muscle fibers accompanied by increases in non contractile structures such as fat and connective tissue.

Decreased motor units

There were fewer motor unites and muscles are denervated.

Reduced muscle strength

Loss of muscle fibers and innervation reduces strength capacities, decreases muscle metabolism and increase risk of muscle damage. Synthesis rate of muscle protein decreases with aging process. muscle repair capacities are reduced with increased age.

The major cause of strength and muscle mass loss with aging process is endocrine changes, including increased insulin resistant, decreased growth hormone, reduction in oestrogen and testosterone, vitamin D deficiency, increased parathyroid hormone.

Chinese medicine stories :Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen)

Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen) Replenishing both Qi and blood

A long time ago in a mountain village, there was a rich owner of a herb shop ‘Ji Shi Tang’. He sold poor quality herbs or fake herbs to make profit. There was a poor young guy in the village named Lang Zhang. His mother died of eating the fake herbs from ‘Ji Shi Tang’. After his mother died, he lived with his father. Not long after, his father was ill and took some herbs from ‘Ji Shi Tang’, but he got worse after taking the herbs. Someone who knew the herbs said that this was because one herb ‘Dang Shen’ on the formula was replaced by grass root. Lang understood the fake herbs and decided to go to the mountain to pick up the herb himself. He looked for the herb all over the mountains; it was windy and cold; it was getting dark and the cliffs was everywhere and very terrifying. Lang was tired and hungry, finally he was too tired and fell in a cave. In his dream, he felt lying on the flower bed, soft and warm, very comfortable; a beautiful fairy stood in front of him. The gfairy asked him why he was her? He told her his story. The fairy told him that there was a big Dang Shen plant in the gorge; you picked it up and planted in your garden. Then you picked up a leaf and made tea to let your father drink it. He would recover. When he woke up and found out it was a dream. But he decided to act according to what the fairy said in his dream. Suddenly he found Dang Shen plant and he picked up the plant carefully. This Dang Shen plant was one foot high, like a small human being with arms and legs, nose and eyes just like the fairy said. He carefully put the plant in his basket and bring it home and planted it in his garden. He made tea with a leaf for his father. After drinking Dang Shen tea, his father felt much better. Since then, Lang watered the plant, gave it the plant food, and get rit of the grass around the plant every day. He cherish Dang Shen plant so much. Someday The girl from dream walked out from the plant tree and married Lang. They lived happily thereafter.

Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen) are the root of Codonopsis pilosula. They strengthen spleen and lung Qi and nourish blood and essence. They are sweet in taste and neutral in nature. They are attributed to spleen and lung meridians. Daily dosage is 9-30 g.

Dang Shen is used for replenishing qi (vital energy) deficiency and can be sometimes used as a substitute for Ginseng, so it is called poor man’s Ginseng.

Pharmacological effects of Codonopsis Radix are

1, strengthening the immune system, having anti-aging antioxidant effect and neuro protective effect and reducing fatigue to improve energy level;

2, improving lung function such as shortness breath, coughing.

3, improving gastrointestinal function, diarrhea, appetite and protecting gastric inner lining from ulcer.

4, other effects such as antidiabetic, anti-ischemia and reperfusion injury.

References

Jing-Yu He J Nat Med. 2015; 69: 1–21.

Monday, 25 May 2020

Chinese Medicine stories : Lycii Fructus (Gou Qi Zi)

Lycii Fructus (Gou Qi Zi)

Lycii Fructus (Gou Qi Zi) is known as the wolfberry or goji berry, the fruits of Lycium barbarum and is used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and functional food in daily life.

In an ancient Chinese medical book <Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang>, there was a story about Gou Qi (Lycium barbarum). A civil service officer went on business trip to Ning Xia province. He saw that teenage girl was beating an old man aged 80-90; the old man didn’t defend himself but accepted it by nodding his head. Then the officer went to ask why? The young lady said that this old man was her great grandson. Because he didn’t listen to her advice and he looked so old with grey hair and fallen teeth in such a young age; it was why she was beating him. The officer asked ‘how old were you?’ she said ‘I was over 375 year old’. The officer was shocked and asked why she looked so young? She said, ‘I ate Gou Qi everyday: young leaves in the spring, stems in the summer, fruits in the autumn, skin and root in the winter’. The officer was speechless.

In Song Dynasty, a famous poet Lu You was treated with Gou Qi Zi for his aged eyes and then his eyesight was good as normal. He wrote a famous poem to praise Gou Qi Zi porridge.

The earliest use of Lycium barbarum dried fruits as a medicinal plant was at around 2300 years ago. At Present, China is the largest world producer, mainly in Ning Xia province. The fruits are red and about 1–2 cm long. They are sweet in taste. Daily dose is 6-12 g. They attribute to liver and kidney. They tonic liver and kidney, strengthen the essence and improve eyesight.

In modern pharmacology, many health effects of Lycii Fructus have been confirmed.

1, Anti-aging: Lycii Fructus protects neuros from aging. This is because it has antioxidant effects reducing antioxidative stress, inhibits inflammation, inhibits abnormal differentiation of nerve cells, apoptosis glutamate toxicity, protects microvascular endothelial cells to protect neuros from damaging and degenerating.

2, Immune regulation and antitumour activities.

3, Other effects include liver protection, alleviating dry-eye syndrome, antidiabetics etc.

References

http://www.ningxiahong.com/content/details_49_840.html

Biomolecules. 2019 Sep; 9(9): 389.

Friday, 22 May 2020

Blue spot in the brain

In the brain there is a blue spot called the locus coeruleus. It is a small pigmented region in the pons of the brainstem- a part of the brain just above the skull base at the back. The blue colouring is caused by the production of a pigment formed by chemical reactions involving the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. This is the principal site for brain synthesis of noradrenaline. This blue spot sends noradrenaline almost to all regions of the brain including mood control regions prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. It is involved in physiological responses to stress and panic. Neurons in this blue spot are less active at calm situation and sleep, but their activities are increased in response to alert situation such as stress. In response to stress, the blue spot is activated and produces more noradrenaline to alter cognitive function and activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis to produce more stress hormones and increase sympathetic nerve activities. It also affects amygdala to induce most stress-induced fear-circuitry disorders, such as anxiety. Aging is associated with a significant loss of neurons in the blue spot.

Thursday, 21 May 2020

Chinese herb stories : Lonicera japonica Flos or Japanese honeysuckle (Jin Yin Hua)

Lonicerae japonicae flos (Jin Yin Hua in Chinese), flowers or flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunberg, is an extremely used traditional edible-medicinal herb.

Once upon a time, in a small village, A couple who were very diligent had twin daughters. The girls’ names were Jin Hua and Yin Hua which Jin Hua meant yellow color flower, Yin Hua meant white color flower, the combination meant white and yellow flowers. In a summer, a terrible disease spread out in the village. People who got it had high fever, did not respond to any treatments and they were dying. The twin sisters asked the permission from their parents to go and find a doctor and medicine for the patients. They came to the mountain Hua and a Chinese doctor told them to climb up to the mountain to pick up flowers which blossomed in the summer yellow and white due to changing colour from white to yellow. These plants didn’t die off in the winter. The twin sisters picked up the flowers from all of the mountains. They took the flowers home, boiled them and let patients drink the soup. All sick people were healed. To remember the twin sisters, they name the flowers Jin Yin Hua.

Lonicerae japonicae flos was first described in different name in The Collective Notes to Canon of Materia Medica (around 480–498 AD). It gained its current name Jin Yin Hua since Qing Dynasty. Lonicerae japonicae flos grows mainly in Shandong, Shaanxi, Henan, and Hebei Provinces in China, among which the Pingyi County, Linyi City, Shandong Province, is the main area with the largest production. They are sweet in flavor and cold in nature, attribute to lung, heart, and stomach meridians. They clear heat, toxins, and certain external ailments.

They have many pharmacological effects and therapeutic applications and have long been applied in treating inflammation and infectious diseases.

Modern pharmacological study has confirmed their antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, antioxidative, anti-tumour, liver protective and hypoglycemic activities by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism,

1, Its anti-inflammatory activities were via inhibiting inflammatory factor synthesis/release, decreased expression of immune related molecules, and enzyme activities of matrix metalloproteinase

2, It has broad spectrum of antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral effects; it has significant anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidative Effects and immunoregulation. It is most used for inflammatory and infectious diseases.

3, Other effects include antiatherosclerotic effects, modulates gut microbiota, antiallergic effects, antiultraviolet Radiation to protect skin damage from UV light, a ntiendotoxin Effects, spasmolytic Effects, antiplatelet Effect, neuroprotective Effect etc.

References
Yujie Li et al Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 905063.

Wednesday, 20 May 2020

Microcirculation and blood stasis

The microcirculation is the terminal branching network of the vessels consisting of microvessels with diameters <100 µm. Vessels of the microcirculation are almost entirely lined by endothelial cells (EC) to keep the entirety of the network. This network cannot be seen by our eyes due to its small sizes and it comprises arterioles, post-capillary venules, capillaries, and their cellular constituents (blood cells) including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The lymphatic capillaries carry the extravascular fluid into the venous system. These vessels distribute blood to the body’s tissues and are the site where exchanges of oxygen and nutrients, solutes, hormones and inflammatory cells occurs between blood and tissue to provide energy for tissue function and mediate the functional activity of the immune system and hemostasis.

Microcirculation dysfunction causes tissue injury, organ impairment and dysfunction. In Chinese medicine this is known as blood stasis which means that the blood is not flowing or circulating as optimally as it could to all parts of the body. Microcirculation dysfunction will result in energy deprivation, oxidative stress to the cardiovascular system and the tissues, as a consequence, tissue injury and impairment in related organs.

Monday, 18 May 2020

Acupuncture boosts energy

Qi is energy system in Chinese medicine. This is equivalent to Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy system which is the universal energy source in all biological systems. ATP is energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things and provides energy to drive many processes in living cells such as all muscle movements, heart beats, nerve signals and chemical reactions inside the body. ATP carried energy is obtained from food molecules and oxygens. It is estimated that the human body uses roughly 2 × 1026 transient molecules of ATP or more than the bodies weight; 160 kg of ATP in a day.

When the energy is needed by the cells, ATP is break down to ADP to release energy for the cells to use. After ATP being and energy are used, the cells restore ATP by converting ADP back to ATP. These processes occur in the cell membrane called mitochondria. Because our body consume so much energy in a day, we need constantly refuel to restore energy by eating nutritious food and breathing in oxygen and the heart and blood circulatory system need continually supply this substances to the cells to produce energy ATP.

If any part of the pathway is blocked, the qi and energy supply and circulation will be blocked. We would feel lack of energy and tired. Acupuncture helps improve blood circulation, keep sufficient energy supply to the body and boost our energy.

Saturday, 16 May 2020

How five of the world’s worst pandemics finally ended.

1, Plague of Justinian—No One Left to Die

This plague was one of the three deadliest pandemics in recorded history which was caused by bacterium, Yersinia pestis infection. The Emperor Justinian was receiving tribute in grain from conquered Egypt. The plague was carried across the Mediterranean Sea from Egypt with the grain contaminated with fleas and black rats and arrived in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, in 541 CE.

The plague decimated Constantinople and spread like wildfire across Europe, Asia, North Africa and Arabia killing an estimated 30 to 50 million people, perhaps half of the world’s population.

People had no real understanding of how to fight it other than trying to avoid sick people at that time. The guess how the plague ended was that those who survive have immunity.

2. Black Death— Quarantine invented

The plague never really went away, and it came back 800 years later. The black death caused by the same bacterium, Yersinia pestis infection hit Europe in 1347 and was the worst pandemic in human history by claiming 200 million lives. People still had no scientific understanding of contagion and transmission, but they realised the close contact contributed to the infection. Isolation was invented at that time. Newly arrived sailors were held in isolation for 30 days, then extended to 40 days or a quarantine, the origin of the word quarantine until they could prove they weren’t sick. This had effects of controlling the transmission.

3. The Great Plague of London—Sealing up the Sick

The Great Plague of London was another outbreak caused by bacterium, Yersinia pestis infection. Actually, London never really caught a break after the Black Death. The outbreaks were on and off for 300 years from 1348 to 1665. By the early 1500s, England imposed the first laws to separate and isolate the sick. Homes stricken by plague were marked with a bale of hay strung to a pole outside. If you had infected family members, you had to carry a white pole when you went out in public. Cats and dogs were believed to carry the disease, so there was a wholesale massacre of hundreds of thousands of animals.

The Great Plague of 1665 was the last and one of the worst of the centuries-long outbreaks, killing 100,000 Londoners in just seven months. All public entertainment was banned and victims were forcibly shut into their homes to prevent the spread of the disease. This may have been the only way to bring the last great plague outbreak to an end.

4. Smallpox—Vaccinating healthy people

Smallpox was endemic to Europe, Asia and Arabia for centuries and this was bringing to Americas by the first European explorers in 15th century. The indigenous peoples of modern-day Mexico and the United States had zero natural immunity to smallpox and the virus cut them down by the tens of millions.

In the late 18th-century, a British doctor named Edward Jenner discovered that milkmaids infected with a milder virus called cowpox seemed immune to smallpox. Jenner famously inoculated his gardener’s 9-year-old son with cowpox and then exposed him to the smallpox virus with no ill effect.

And he was right. It took nearly two more centuries, but in 1980 the World Health Organization announced that smallpox had been completely eradicated from the face of the Earth. Smallpox became the first virus epidemic to be ended by a vaccine.

5. Cholera—Avoiding contaminated water

In the early- to mid-19th century, cholera killing its victims within days of the first symptoms tore through England, killing tens of thousands.

A British doctor named John Snow suspected that it was related to London’s drinking water. He tracked the precise locations of deadly outbreaks and created a geographic chart of cholera deaths over a 10-day period and found a cluster of 500 fatal infections surrounding the Broad Street pump, a popular city well for drinking water. He convinced local officials to remove the pump handle on the Broad Street drinking well, rendering it unusable, and like magic the infections dried up.

His work didn’t cure cholera overnight, but it eventually led to a global effort to improve urban sanitation and protect drinking water from contamination. While cholera has largely been eradicated in developed countries, it’s still a persistent killer in third-world countries lacking adequate sewage treatment and access to clean drinking water.

References
https://www.history.com/news/pandemics-end-plague-cholera-black-death-smallpox

Friday, 15 May 2020

20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics in history. Which one is the deadliest?


Top 20 worst epidemic and pandemic in history from AD.Black death made to the top one deadliest pandemic outbreak in the history.

Outbreak
Cause
Year and duration
Places affected
Death toll
1
Antonine Plague
smallpox
A.D. 165-180
The Roman Empire

2
Plague of Cyprian

smallpox or measles
A.D. 250-271
The Roman Empire
5,000 people a day in Rome alone
3
Plague of Justinian
the bacterium Yersinia pestisspread by fleas on infected rodents
A.D. 541-542
The Byzantine Empire
25 millions
4
The Black Death

the bacterium Yersinia pestis
spread by fleas on infected rodents
1346-1353

Asia and Europe
200 millions (50-60% of the population of Europe)
5
Cocoliztli epidemic

viral hemorrhagic fever
1545-1548
Mexico and Central America.
15 million
6
American Plagues

a cluster of diseases:smallbox etc
16th century
the Americas
90% of the indigenous population in the Western Hemisphere
7
Great Plague of London

the bacterium Yersinia pestis
spread by fleas from plague-infected rodents
1665-1666
London
100,000 people
15% of the population of London
8
Great Plague of Marseille
fleas on plague-infected rodents
1720-1723
Marseille
100,000
9
Russian plague
fleas on plague-infected rodents
1770-1772


10
Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic
yellow fever
1793
Philadelphia
US
More than 5,000
11
Third cholera pandemic

cholera bacteria
1852–1860
India to globally
1 million
12
Flu pandemic:
Russian Flu
influenza viruses
1889-1890
Russia to globally
 1 million 
13
Sixth cholera pandemic
cholera bacteria
1910-1911
India to Globally
800,000
14
Spanish Flu
influenza viruses
1918-1920
Globally
50 million
15
Asian Flu
influenza viruses
1957-1958
China to Globally
1 million
16
Flu pandemic
(Hong Kong flu)

influenza viruses
H3N2 
1968
Hong Kong to Globally
1 million
17
AIDS pandemic and epidemic:

HIV
1981-present day
West Africa to Globally
35 millions
18
H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic

influenza viruses H1N1
2009-2010
Mexico to Globally
151,700 and 575,400
19
West African Ebola epidemic

Ebola viruses
2014-2016 
Guinea to West Africa
11,325
20
Covid-19
SARS-CoV-2
2019-present
China to globally
Over 300,000


References
https://www.livescience.com/worst-epidemics-and-pandemics-in-history.html
https://www.mphonline.org/worst-pandemics-in-history/

5 reasons why you should have yoga along with acupuncture to benefit most for the mind-body health.

Modern rapid lifestyle puts extreme strains on our mind and body. To keep our mind-body healthy we look back for those ancient healing arts ...