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Acupuncture for fertility and miscarriage
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Guest blog articles
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Maggie Ju (2014) Current opinion in acupuncture on stroke rehabilitation
The Journal of Chinese Medicine And Acupuncture Volume 21 Issue 2 September 2014 P9
Maggie Ju. (2015) What Part Does Acupuncture Play in IVF?
The Journal of Chinese Medicine And Acupuncture Volume 22 Issue 1 March 2015 P21
Maggie Ju (2020) The Potentiality of COVID-19 Treatment with Chinese Herbal Medicine in the UK
The Journal of Chinese Medicine And Acupuncture Volume 27 Issue 2 November 2020 P9
Friday, 19 October 2018
What is pelvic floor?
Ligaments of the Pelvis
Iliolumbar ligament - from tip of transverse process of L5 to posterior aspect of inner lip of iliac crest; strengthens the lumbo-sacral joint.
Lateral lumbosacral ligament
Sacrotuberous ligament- from sacrum to tuberosity of the ischium
Sacrospinous ligament - from ischial spine to lateral margins of the sacrum
Ventral/Anterior sacroiliac ligament- from antero-lateral aspect of sacrum to auricular surface of the ilium
Dorsal/Posterior sacroiliac ligament
Upper portion (short posterior sacroiliac ligament) - from 1st and 2nd transverse tubercles of sacrum to tuberosity of ilium
Lower portion (long posterior sacroiliac ligament) - from 3rd transverse tubercle of sacrum to posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)
Interosseous sacroiliac ligament- lies deep to posterior SI ligament and runs between the tuberosities of the sacrum and ilium
Ventral/Anterio sacrococcygeal ligament -from anterior surface of sacrum to the front of the coccyx; continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
Dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament
Deep portion - from inside sacral canal at the 5th sacral segment to the dorsal surface of the coccyx; continuation of the psoterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
Superficial portion - from free margin of sacral hiatus to dorsal surface of the coccyx; corresponds with the ligamentum flavum of the spine
Lateral sacrococcygeal ligament - from inferior lateral angle of the sacrum to the transverse process of the 1st coccygeal vertebra
Pubic Symphysis Ligaments
Superior pubic ligament - runs between pubic tubercles
Inferior pubic ligament (aka arcuate public ligament) - runs between inferior pubic rami and blends with fibrocartilagnous disc of pubic symphysis
Anterior pubic ligament
Posterior pubic ligament - membranous structure which blends with periosteum
Endopelvic Fascia - Ligaments
Female: Pubovesical ligaments - attach bladder to pubic symphysis
Male: Puboprostatic ligaments - attach bladder to pubic symphysis
Sacrogenital - these are thickenings of the fascia, not specific ligaments
Uterosacral ligaments - attach upper vagina, upper portion of cervix and uterus to the 3rd sacral vertebra
Cardinal ligaments (aka Mackenrodt's) - attach upper vagina, cervix and uterus to the side walls of the pelvis
Round ligaments - attach uterus to mons pubis
Broad ligaments - attach uterus to medial aspect of the ilium
Uracus ligament - attaches bladder to umbilicus (formed from the remnants of the umbilican vein)
Penile Suspensory Ligaments
Penile Suspensory ligament - attaches to anterior aspect of interpubic disc and divides in two to sling around the penis
Fundiform ligament - extends from inferior linea alba and divides to wrap around the penis
Parietal pelvic fascia - lines the internal surface of the muscles of the pelvic floor and walls
Visceral pelvic fascia - invests each pelvic organ
The parietal and visceral fascia are continuous where organs penetrate the pelvic floor. They thicken to form the arcus tendineus, arches of fascia running adjacent to the viscera from the pubis to the sacrum.
Endopelvic fascia* - meshwork of smooth muscle, ligaments, blood vessels and connective tissue lying between the parietal and visceral fascia, sometimes condensing to form fibrous fascial septa which separate and suspend the organs.
Anatomists use the name subserous fascia whereas surgeons refer to this layer of retroperitoneal fascia as endopelvic fascia.
Hypogastric sheath - separates retropubic space from presacral space; conduit for vessels and nerves
Transverse cerical (cardinal) ligaments - part of hypogastric sheath; runs from lateral pelvic wall to uterine cervix and vagina; transmits uterine artery and provides passive support for the uterus
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